What is the USA higher education?
In colloquial American English, all higher education institutions are often called colleges. The main difference of college from university consists that primary activity of college is training of students in programs of a bachelor degree. Research activity and post-graduate program in colleges tend to be absent. Most four-year colleges are private and train a very small number of students (usually not more than 2000). There are also state colleges that are intended for training of talented students and take them on a competitive basis. The American colleges can be grouped in branch accessory. So, for example, there are “Bible colleges”, where education is closely connected with studying of fundamentals of Christian religion, or “Colleges of free arts” where the humanities are mainly taught.
USA universities, according to the method of financing, are divided into private and state universities. Private ones are funded by cash funds, contributed by students and their parents as tuition fees and donations. State universities are funded by governments. The main purpose is to teach the residents of particular state, students from other states, and even from the other countries. The tuition fees and the competition for admission to theuniversities are much higher. One of the drawbacks of public universities is considered that they are often recruited very large classes, and it complicates training. Despite of this, the best state universities such as the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Virginia, the University of Michigan are very popular among American and international students, and they are included to the mba rankings 2016.
The structure and variety of forms of USA higher education
The term “higher education” in the United States is not strictly defined, it differs the variety of forms of training and the requirements for graduates, so it will be correct to speak like “after school” education.
Such education includes:
- 2-year colleges (community colleges, junior colleges, technical colleges, liberal arts colleges) – primary higher education for those who hurry to start a career. These are the courses with narrow specialization (agriculture, design in a certain area, sewing, auto-matter, etc.). It allows getting the professional qualification and the education document, which, depending on training duration, can be called Certificate, Diploma or Associate Degree.
- 4-year colleges – a complete higher education. Allow to receive the academic degrees of the bachelor or master and professional qualification. Colleges often have a certain specialization, their own training programs and introductory requirements.
- Universities – a complete higher education, the most knowledge-intensive educational institutions. Under the auspices of university there can be several colleges, the research centers that are located in different cities. They allow getting the academic degree of the bachelor, master, PhD and professional qualification. Universities, as well as colleges, can be state and private and are differed in financing sources.
Features of training and system of estimates in the USA universities
In many United States universities you should not file documents on any concrete faculty. It is enough to submit the application for entering a higher education institution and after entering you can choose the specialization. The student is allowed to choose specialization upon termination of the first or second year, when all general education objects are passed. Sometimes, except the main specialization, the student can choose several additional or to be trained at once on two or three basic.
The majority of courses consist of lecture and seminar occupations. The writing of examinations or research projects is provided for many of them. While visiting a class, the student earns a certain number of points, corresponding of work on the subject in a week.
Students are given a certain number of credits for each semester. Every studied subject is estimated the credits, depending on the number of teaching hours and hours of independent work to be done on it. For example, higher mathematics – 12 credits, logic – 5 credits. On the basis of their desires and the chosen specialization, the student self-generates a list of items for each semester and individually attends classes on the schedule. During the semester, he must earn credits in the interval specified minimum and maximum and fulfill university requirements for a degree at the time of his graduation. It is very good for mba rankings 2016.
Estimates in universities are normally exhibited by the results of the semester. They mainly depend on examinations, protection projects and abstracts of assignments for self-training. The system in the US assessment is the same for secondary and higher education. The results of the tests and examinations are assessed according to the scheme A / B / C / D / F, where A – the best mark, F – unsatisfactory. All the marks, except F, can be added to “+” or “-“.
Reputation of the American higher education in the world
It is prestigious to graduate the university in the USA. High requirements to foreign students help educational institutions to select the best applicants who, as envisioned by administration of the USA, have to take away home a positive image of America mba rankings 2016 and will form public opinion in the countries over time.
Universities help foreign students with future searches of the employer right after the definition of specialty. At each university there is a department of search of future employers. Many American (and not only) companies leave the applications there or arrange meetings of the representatives with students. The success depends from ability “to sell itself”, to make the attractive summary, from ability to build relationship with the students of older years and teaching structure.
Level faculty in US universities is determined by not only teaching abilities, but also, to a large extent and personal research projects. As a result, graduates of American universities are more willing to work independently and immediately after the graduation.